Known by numerous names,  "The Women's Holocaust",  "The Burning Times",  "The Great Witch Hunt",   this sad chapter in Western History is only now beginning to get the full attention it deserves.

Witch-A Witch-B
Both Catholics and Protestant churches persecuted witches.   The only difference being the form of execution, Catholics burnt witches while Protestants hang them.

Section II

“There are very few Catholic apologists who feel inclined to boast of the annals of the Inquisition.   The boldest of them defend this institution against the attacks of modern liberalism, . . “Why,” they ask, “do you denounce our Inquisition, when you are responsible for Inquisitions of your own?”   No good can be accomplished by such a false method of reasoning. . . . It does not follow that because the Inquisition of Calvin and the French Revolutionists merits the reprobation of mankind, [that] the Inquisition of the Catholic Church must needs escape all censure.   On the contrary, . . . . What the friends of the Church will not mention will be spread, broadcast by her enemies. . . . We ought not to be afraid to-day of the light of truth; but fear rather the darkness of lies and errors” ---- The Inquisition by E. Vacandard 1908
OK, first lets get this over with; about the e-mail address the author uses -- [].   Granted, I’m half Mexican, or Latino, or what-ever and YES, I did grow up in a Roman Catholic home; ---ok, there it is.   BUT, at this time I see myself as an Episcopalian with some pagan overtures.   However, this book is NOT the proper place to discuss the status of women, nor claims of infallibility etc.

Suffice it to say, my personal beliefs or background will not cloud the present subject.   Here before (see Section I), I have strongly defended the Catholic Church, against false and what must be considered out and out malaises and/or myth-Information.   I have done this because as a historian I have felt it my duty to do so.   Those ‘so-called’ pro-Medical Cannabis activists that are spreading such dis-information do themselves and all others a great disservice.

However, be that as it may, it is also a historical fact that between the 14th and 17th Centuries, between 30,000 and 300,000[2] individuals, many of them innocent, were (under the auspices of the Church) put to death as witches.

The Kiss
The most famous of all wood-carvings. As part of a ritual (in order to seal the pact), initiating witches were required to kiss the Devil’s backside.
Invoking Demons

Woodcarving - A witch calling on distractive demons capable of inflicting illness and even death. [B]

Now here one can ask the question; What has all this to do with the subject of Medical Cannabis?   Simply but, over 80% of those accused, tortured and executed for witchcraft were women.   And unfortunately many of these women were older hags.

Here I use the term “Hag” in its traditional form, meaning, “An older women of great wisdom, to whom people go to for advice.”   Hags, that possessed much of the then known knowledge of medical herbs and plants.   But maybe this needs further explanation.
  • For obvious biological reasons, women carry, have and than take care of the young children.

  • Thus woman, unlike males that went off hunting somewhere, traditionally stayed home and tended to the garden.   Even to this day at the dinner table, in many cultures man serve the meat while women serve the vegetables.

  • Thus, it becomes obvious why women tended to know more about medical herbs etc., then did their male counterparts.
  • And the persecution of these women may hold the key to understanding why western medicine fell so far behind the Chinese, the Mohammedans, and just about everyone else.   Remember that before the advent of modern chemistry; almost ALL our medicines came from medicinal herbs.   And while in today’s world, most of us tend to think of gardens as solely places to grow roses or beautiful flowers etc., ORIGINALLY gardens began as places to grow medicinal herbs, spice plants etc., the beautiful flowers associated with gardens today, only came along sometime afterwards.

    Now, remembering that (at most) only 2% of the population at that time knew how to read/write, it then becomes obvious how much damage to our medical knowledge (including the use of Medical Cannabis) was done by the witch hunters.   Had they not occurred, a lot of medical knowledge would have been able to have been orally handed down, instead have having to have been relearned from scratch.

    Child Victim
    The Dismemberment of a child-Victim

    A child is to be killed, cooked, and ritually dismembered to be used as part of the witches demonic pharmacopoeia. [A]
    Desecrating Dead
    Desecrating The Dead
    Witches were often accused of grave robbing. The bodies were supposedly used in sealing their pacts with Satan or for use in magical rites of one sort or another.

    There are numerous time lines that can be found on this subject on the Internet (but watch it, ---many of them are full of errors).   This one here is simply concerned with the origins of and the mechanical creation of the Witch-Hunters.

    As an aside; anyone who has studied the subject, can’t help but notice the similarities between the creation of the anti-witch laws and the anti-Medical Marihuana laws of the 1930’s.   Between the creation of the Inquisition back then, and the Narcotics Police today.   Things started out slowly, but then bit by bit, they became stronger, until a hysteria campaign was in full bloom.

    1-AD - 300-AD:
    “The reason that there is a great deal of discourse over the role of women in the (Christian) Church today, is because they had a role in the early days of the church.” --- Bart D. Ehrman [3]
    Anyone who has read the scriptures knows that women played a key and important role in the early church.   Their houses were used as meeting holds and places of worship.   They not only help finance the early church but served as ministers and preachers etc.

    Because women had such a high place in the early church and thus played a central role in running / decision making etc.   It is no accident that no persecution of women healers was allowed to occur.   The official position of the church in those days seems to have been that witchcraft (while possible), was null-and-voided through the power of Christ.   That as long as you believed in Jesus, no demonic power could possible be used against you.

    Although playing a large role in the early church, by (around) 300-AD, women’s role/input in the affairs of the church had all but vanished, with an ALL-MALE high-archly firmly in place.   [Just look at an Islamic society today and you’ll get the picture]   And although very slowly at first, Christian attitudes toward the role of women now began to change.   Elderly Hags, went from being seen as women of great wisdom and equals in the body of Christ, to more of a role resembling pray, pay, and obey.   And, while NO active organized persecution accrued during this time, woman came under increasing social pressure to leave the medical professions and let more qualified males take over.

    1100 - 1200-AD:
    The “Official Position” of the church was that while some women fantasized that they were witches and had the power to fly around on broomsticks etc.   That it was all in their imaginations.   In order to clarify the situation, the Church in 1141 even issued “The Canon Episcopi,” parts of which read as follows:
    “It is also not to be omitted that some wicked women, perverted by the Devil, seduced by illusions and phantasms of demons, believe and profess themselves, in the hours of night, to ride upon certain beasts with Diana, the goddess of pagans, and an innumerable multitude of women, and in the silence of the dead of night to traverse great spaces of earth, and to obey her commands as of their mistress, and to be summoned to her service on certain nights. . . . .
    . . . the priests throughout their churches should preach with all insistence to the people that they may know this to be in every way false and that such phantasms are imposed on the minds of infidels and not by the divine but by the malignant spirit. . . . .
    . . . For of our Lord it is written "All things were made by Him." Whoever therefore believes that anything can be made, or that any creature can be changed to better or to worse or be transformed into another species or similitude, except by the Creator himself who made everything and through whom all things were made, is beyond doubt an infidel.   [MORE]
    In other words, stories of the existence of witches were all so much bunk.   A good correlation would be something that happened just before the beginning of the Reefer Madness era.   In reply to a letter from the Drug Police critical of Medical Cannabis, the head of the AMA’s legal department replied with “Absolute Rot.” [4]

    However, the political/religious landscape was changing, with a serious back and forth discourse taking place over the issue of witchcraft; Was it real or was it all imaginary?

          Up until this point, ignoring isolated incidents, NO officially sanctioned persecution of women by the church has taken place.   However, the church did, through social stigma, discourage women from leadership and medical roles.   This “Dis-Empowerment” of women, would at a later time (in effect) leave them powerless to defend themselves during the persecutions soon to come.


    Although having nothing directly to do with Cannabis, it would be irresponsible of us not to point out what is an obvious, but often overlooked factor.   Instrumental to the origins of the witchcraft hysteria ---- the crusades.   Just look at their time-line:
    1095 1st Crusade
    1140 2nd Crusade
    1186 3rd Crusade
    1189 4th Crusade
    1217 5th Crusade

    Note the historical relationship between the time-lines to the Hysteria campaign.   At the beginning, witchcraft is laughed at, yet by the end the hysteria is in full swing.

    It is also important to note that these were only the starts of the major ones.   In terms of actual fighting -- that would continue for centuries yet to come. Thus the need (or excuse) to root out HERETICS --- a term technically meaning “the belief in a false faith,” but given the crusades, would better translate into the term TREASON.

    1184 -AD:
    Pope Lucics III, issues his AD ABOLENEDAM: [Warning: Try as we may, the museum has NOT been able to obtain the exact wording, only what others say that it says]
    “Pope Lucius III, at the council of Verona in 1184, ordered [Ad Abolenedam] sovereigns to swear, in the presence of their bishops, to execute fully and conscientiously the ecclesiastical and civil laws against heresy. If they refused or neglected to do this, they themselves were liable to excommunication and their rebellious cities to interdict." --- E.Vacandard [5]
    1208 -AD:
    A holy crusade against the Cathars or Albigensians is declared by Pope Innocent III.

    Pope Gregory-IX

    1227 -AD:     In order to root out heresy (false religious teachings), Pope Gregory IX officially established the Inquisitional.   However, it should be noted that this was only a formality and that the papal Inquisition had already been in existence for quite some time.   By way of analogy: Everyone today has heard of the D.E.A. (Drug Enforcement Administration).   BUT Wait, before then it was known as the Bureau of Narcotics (Harry Anslingers old group).   BUT Wait, before that it was known as the Bureau or Prohibition.   BUT Wait, before that it was known as the Bureau of Chemistry, BUT Wait, before than . . . . . only the Devil knows, but it was there in some form or another. --- Point being made, the Inquisition had already been in existence long before this time.

    1232 -AD:
    Pope Gregory IX, enters the fray by writing his now famous, Letter to the King of Germany, describing (in his own words) the black masses that are taking place in his neck of the woods:
    “Then all sit down to a banquet and when they rise after it is finished, a black cat emerges from a kind of statue which normally stands in the place where these meetings are held. It is as large as a fair-sized dog, and enters backwards with its tail erect. First the novice kisses its hind parts, then the Master of Ceremonies proceeds to do the same and finally . . . . . . . When this ceremony is over the lights are put out and those present indulge in the most loathsome sensuality, having no regard to sex. If there are more men than women, men satisfy one another's depraved appetites. Women do the same for one another. . . . . . . . . Furthermore, these most miserable of men blaspheme against the Lord of Heaven and in their madness say that the Lord has done evil in casting out Lucifer into the bottomless pit. These most unfortunate people believe in Lucifer and claim that he was the creator of the celestial bodies and will ultimately return to glory when the Lord has fallen from power. Through him and with him they hope to achieve eternal happiness.”   [MORE]
    While the author is not gay, this really does sort of remind one of the Reefer Madness Hysteria campaign, just as it was beginning to take off in the early 1930’s.

    1252 -AD:
    Pope Innocent IV issues the papal in his Bull "Ad Extirpanda":
      [MORE] on May 15, 1252, that in effect:
    • Made the Death penalty for Heresy almost mandatory.
    • Sanctioned the use of Torture --- “Each mayor or ruler (of the city) is hereby ordered to force all captured heretics to confess and accuse their accomplices by torture which will not imperil life or injure limb, just as thieves and robbers are forced to accuse their accomplices and to confess their crimes; for these heretics are true thieves, murderers of souls, and robbers of sacraments of God.”
    • Was supposed to have given The Inquisition a limited form of diplomatic immunity against civil laws, thus in effect placing them entirely above the law.
    • Ordered that ALL Christians give assistance in identification and seeking out witches and heretics on pain of excommunication.
    • Ordered that local mayor civil authorities have the bull read in all public places designated by the Inquisitors, and to eliminate all local laws that run contrary to the Bull.
    But most damning of all, Authorizing seizure of property or goods owned by suspected Heretics.   Very similar to the Drug Forfeiture Asset laws, used to intimidate people today by the Drug Police.

    1258 -AD:
    Pope Alexander IV, although reaffirming the use of Torture, tries somewhat to rain-in the Inquisitors by limiting the Inquisitions powers solely to Heresy and NOT to investigate sorcery etc., UNLESS heresy itself was involved:
    “The Inquisitors, deputed to investigate heresy, must not intrude into investigations of divination or sorcery without knowledge of manifest heresy involved. It is reasonable that those charged with the affairs of the faith, which is the greatest of privileges, ought not thereby to intervene in other matters. The inquisitors of pestilential heresy, commissioned by the apostolic see, ought not intervene in cases of divination or sorcery unless these clearly savor of manifest heresy. Nor should they punish those who are engaged in these things, but leave them to other judges for punishment. . . “ [C]
    Unfortunately, his wording of and of itself, left that one loop-hole, concerning the “Involvement of Heresy.” This would soon be translated into -- “All Witchcraft involved Heresy or false teachings,” thus a green light would be turned on.

    1305 -AD:
    The Knights Templar, were accused by the church of invoking Satan, consorting with female demons, and worshipping black cats.   Their order was disbanded by Pope Clement V.

    ACCUSATION:   That the Church destroyed cats because Church officials labeled them as the devil's helpers and agents in witchcraft [don’t know what this has to do with medical Cannabis, but it always seems to come up].

    As much as I hate to say this, there may actually be some truth to this one.   Until modern times, both the protestant as well as Catholic faiths seem to think very negatively of Cats.   Note, no one knows exactly what cats have to do with medical Cannabis but for whatever reason they both have become inter-twined.

    When the bubonic plague hit Europe (1348), killing over 25 million people.   After several experiences with epidemics, perceptive people recognized that rats were responsible for spreading the plague; communities in which domestic cats helped reduce the rat population experienced lower morbidity from plague.

    1326 -AD:
    Pope John XXII - Finally authorized the Inquisition to go after witches, but only in a limited form.   The "Decretal Super Illius Specula."
    “Grievingly we observe . . . that many who are Christians in name only . . . sacrifice to demons, adore them, make or have made images rings, mirrors, phials, or other things for magic purposes, and bind themselves to demons.   [MORE]
    1347 -AD:
    The Black Death - Killed between 25 to 50% of Europe’s population. Witchcraft, Jews and Mohammedans are suspected of somehow creating/spreading the disease.


    Because of the nature of this book, we can avoid most of the gruesome details.   Here it’s enough to say that between 25 to 50% of Europe’s population died of the disease.

    One can only imagine the kind of fear, if not out and out terror induced by the plague.   People sought out protection in the form of the church and also someone to blame. Jews, Women, witches etc.

    1434 -AD:
    Pope Eugenius IV - By this point what is very apparent is the fact that the whole atmosphere has now changed.   Instead of debating whether witches were real or not, it was now only a matter of how to deal with them.   These (selected parts) of two letters clearly show the concern:
    A Letter to the Inquisitor Pont s Fougeyron, [era 1434]
    “Among many heretics there are found also many Christian and Jewish magicians, diviners, invokers of demons, bewitchers, conjurers, superstitious people, augurs, those who use nefarious and forbidden arts, through whose efforts the Christian people, or at least a numerous and simple-minded part of them, are stained and perverted.“

    A Letter to All Inquisitors of Heretical Depravity [era 1437]
    “The news has reached us, not without great bitterness of spirit, that the prince of darkness makes many who have been bought b the blood of Christ partakers in his own fall and damnation, bewitching them by his cunning arts in such a way that these detestable persuasions and illusions make them members of his sect. They sacrifice to demons, adore them, seek out and accept responses from them, do homage to them, and make with them a written agreement or another kind of pact through which, by a single word, touch, or sign, they may perform whatever evil deeds or sorcery they wish and be transported to or away from wherever they wish. They cure diseases, provoke bad weather, and make pacts concerning other evil deeds.   [MORE]
    Once more the whole atmosphere had completely changed. Instead of debating whether witches were real or not, it was now only a matter of how to deal with them.

    1454 -AD:
    Gutenberg invents the printing press, making mass productions of book possible.

    1478 -AD:
    Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain, request the creation of the Spanish Inquisition.

          As has been seen, throughout this time-period the instruments of terror had come into existence ever so slowly.   Church laws changed, new institutions were created and old ones modified.   Even some of its original theologically ideology was modified to meet numerous factors (wars, plague etc.), many of which were well outside of the churches control.   Additionally, numerous other civil factors had taken place.   Where once whole populations laughed at witchcraft, now it was accepted as common place.   Yes witches were real.

    Devils of Illness
    Devil’s selecting who they would/would not, give powers to inflect illness, as well as those who they would cure of illnesses. Note that the ages (children, young people, adults) made no difference. Satin was an equal opportunity employer. [A]
    Town Burning
    Natural disasters were frequently blamed on witchcraft. Here this woodcarving illustrates two witches using the devils magic to burn a small town down to the ground.

    1484 -AD:
    Pope Innocent VIII issued a papal bull "Summis Desiderantes" on Dec 5, 1484 which promoted the tracking down, torturing and executing of Satan worshipers.
    “. . . . It has recently come to our ears, not without great pain to us, that
    . . . . many persons of both sexes, heedless of their own salvation and forsaking the catholic faith, give themselves over to devils male and female, and by their incantations, charms, and conjuring, and by other abominable superstitions and sortileges, offences, crimes, and misdeeds,
    . . . . We therefore, desiring, as is our duty, to remove all impediments by which in any way the said inquisitors are hindered in the exercise of their office,
    . . . . And they shall also have full and entire liberty to propound and preach to the faithful the word of God, as often as it shall seem to them fitting and proper, in each and all the parish churches in the said provinces, and to do all things necessary and suitable under the aforesaid circumstances, and likewise freely and fully to carry them out.   [MORE]
    Remembering that by this time the Structure of the Inquisition, as well as its power to use torture and total immunity from criminal law, was well established in place.   Thus many (maybe rightfully so) feel that this Papal Bull authorizing its use in Germany marks the beginning of the witch-hunts, or the Burning Times.
    [NOTE: It is untrue that this instrument "labeled cannabis as an unholy sacrament" nor did it place a papal ban on cannabis medicines" -- [See Section I]

    1486 -AD:
    The Malleus Maleficarum: aka The "Hammer of Witches", was first published by two sick-o’s, Jacob Sprenger and Heinrich Kramer.   It basically described the process for seeking out, finding and destroying witches.   It took some pains to warn against women who posed as healers and midwives as they were in a position to do evil.
    The Hammer of Witches
    Right Arrow


    1493 -AD:
    Syphilis: - Europe was hit (many now believe that it was brought back with the crew of Christopher Columbus), with a very virulent strain of Syphilis.   Europeans who had no biological defenses or knowledge of what Syphilis was at the time, naturally turned to the God for help.

    AFTER THIS POINT, THE WITCH HUNTS WERE WELL UNDER WAY, AND WOULD CONTINUE UNTIL THE EARLY 17th CENTURY.   The only analog that can be used is the passage of the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937.   To this day there are still people who believe that Medical Marihuana is the Killer Weed, the Weed of Madness etc.

    MARTIN LUTHUR: - Guided either by conscience or by stupidity, on Oct 31, 1517, Marin Luthur posts his 95 point theses against Indulgences on a church door.   He is soon labeled a Heretic by the church but it is too late, many of Europe’s peoples had had it with the church, with its taxes, and with what they perceived as corruptions etc.

    PROTESTANT MOVEMENT: - Within 15 years, half of Europe has joined the protestant movement against the Catholic Church.   But unfortunately (for women, herbalists etc.) they would go on to make the situation even worse. [see next section below]

    Once more, no one is trying to dodge the bullet by pointing the finger at others.   No one is denying the past; even Pope John-Paul II has officially apologized for what happen during that era.   However, be it Protestant or Catholic, history is history and the facts are that the protestant movement (at least at first) did little or nothing for the status of women.   In fact, they may have done more to drive women away from the medical profession than the Catholics ever could.   Need proof, in the words of Martin Luther:
    "I should have no compassion on these witches; I would burn all of them."
    Below, are quotes from Martin Luther and John Calvan, both of which (no matter what your viewpoint) were both spokespersons in their day for the protestant movement.
    “. . . . it cannot be denied but that the devil liveth, yea, and reigneth throughout the whole world. Witchcraft and sorcery therefore are the works of the devil; whereby he doth not only hurt men, but also, by the permission of God, he sometimes destroyeth them.
    . . . There is none of us so strong that he is able to resist him, and especially if he attempt to do it by his own strength. "Job was an upright and a just man, fearing God, and there was none like unto him upon the earth." Job 1. 8. But what power had he against the devil, when God withdrew his hand? Did not this holy man horribly fall?
    . . . . Of Witchcraft I have spoken before, in the third chapter. This vice was very common in these dour days, before the light and truth of the gospel was revealed. When I was a child, there were many witches and sorcerers, which bewitched both cattle and men, but specially children, and did great harm also otherwise; but now, in the light of the gospel, these things be not so commonly heard of, for the gospel thrusteth the devil out of his seat, with all his illusions. But now he bewitched men much more horribly, namely, with spiritual sorcery and witchcraft.
    . . . . But whilst they go about to bewitch God, they bewitch themselves: for if they continue in this wicked opinion which they conceive of God, they shall die in their idolatry and be damned. --- Martin Luther, A Commentary on St. Paul's Epistle to the Galatians   [MORE]

    [The] Scripture makes known that there are not one, not two, nor a few foes, but great armies, which wage war against us.   For Mary Magdalene is said to have been freed from seven demons by which she was possessed [Mark 16:9; Luke 8:2], and Christ bears witness that usually after a demon has once been cast out, if you make room for him again, he will take with him seven spirits more wicked than he and return to his empty possession [Matt. 12:43-45].   Indeed, a whole legion is said to have assailed one man [Luke 8:30].   We are therefore taught by these examples that we have to wage war against an infinite number of enemies, lest, despising their fewness, we should be too remiss to give battle, or, thinking that we are sometimes afforded some respite, we should yield to idleness. . . . . "Give no place to the devil" [Eph. 4:27].   "The devil your enemy goes about as a roaring lion, seeking someone to devour; resist him, be firm in your faith" [1st Peter 5:8-9], and the like. --- Jean Calvin   [MORE]
    Which is the same as saying, Same-O, Same-O, on with the oppression of women.   And in case you think that all of the above is just so much idle-chatter, let us look at what was said just three years before the Salem witch trials by one Cotton Mather.   Note that he was nether a Catholic nor a European.

    CottonMather WHAT Witchcraft is . . . WITCHCRAFT is the Doing of Strange (and for the most part ill) Things by the help of evil Spirits, . . . Witches are the Doers of Strange Things. . . . They do things which transcend the ordinary Course of Nature, and which puzzle the ordinary Sense of Mankind. Some strange things are done by them in a way of Real Production. . . . . Things which the Magicians of Egypt exhibited of old. . . . The Witches promise to serve the Devils, and the Devils promise to help the witches; . . . We have the Testimony of Scripture for it. . . . . Particularly, the Instance of the Witch at Endor, in [1 Sam. 28. 7].
    . . . It should next be proved THAT Witchcraft is: . . . . The Being of such a thing is denied by many that place a great part of their small wit in deriding the Stories that are told of it. Their chief Argument is, That they never saw any Witches, therefore there are none. Just as if you or I should say, We never met with any Robbers on the Road, therefore there never was any Padding there. ---"A Discourse on Witchcraft” --- by the Reverend Cotton Mather, 1689   [MORE]

    Just three years letter Cotton Mathers would have the opportunity to put into practice what he preached in Salem Massachusetts.

    Wood carving showing three witches using (one presumes) a magical potion to induce illness on one of their victims. [A]
    Offering Children
    Witches Offering Children To The Devil
    The witches bring their children (either for sacrifice or for his blessing) to Satan.


    Due to the authors age, he has had the experience of meeting WWII holocaust deniers, Stalinist apologizers, Pol Pot, Edi Amin etc., deniers etc.   Thus I must take some pains NOT to sound like one of them.   But irregardless the truth is still the truth --- those who either deliberately, or through shear negligence, spread Myth-Information about the church/medical Cannabis, do all of us a disservice.   Simply put they lower themselves to a level no better than that of the Drug Police.

    But on the other hand we must not go to the other extreme and be apologists for the churches (both Catholic and Protestant) activities.   Wrong is still wrong, right is still right, and history is still history.

    Maybe at this point the words of a church apologist are appropriate:[6]
    . . That the church at the time saw evil and persecution throughout Europe . . . and recall that the Black Death took place at around the same time as the witch craze . . . thus people naturally believed that it was witchcraft, Jews, etc. . . and that the Inquisition had been created ONLY as a way to LIMIT the level of persecution . . . that given the level of hysteria at the time, it would have been much worse had it not existed etc. . . .
    And indeed there is some truth to his words, according to Johannes Nohl;[7] Jews were so suspected of creating the Black Death that the Pope had to issued two Bulls, one in July 4th, and on Sep 26, 1348, both of them officially forbidding both their slaughter as well as the stealing of their property, on the pain of excommunication.   But be that as it may, killing of Jews kept on going.

    Maybe the following serves as a better example; I’ve always been led to believe that the Spanish Inquisition killed hundreds of thousands of victims etc.   However historical records show that the actual figure was less than 1,900 in total.   Given the fact that Spain had just been liberated from Mohammedan occupation, it can only be considered a miracle that the figure was so low.   So maybe they were trying to “only limit”

    Especially as people (given the times) were so desperately looking for scapegoats; As Marvin Harris put it:[8]
    “The best way to understand the cause of the witch mania is to examine its earthly results rather than its heavenly intentions. The principal result of the witch-hunt system (aside from charred bodies) was that the poor came to believe came to believe that they were being victimized by witches and devils instead of princes and popes. . . .did the price of bread go up, taxes soar, wages fall, jobs grow scarce? . . . the work of witches [not your local government]“
    And let’s face facts, what better scapegoats than a group of politically powerless women -- Man they beat Jews any day.

    But due to the subject matter of this book, maybe the questions should really be:
    • Were the churches actions justified given the condition?

    • Did the churches actions set back western medical knowledge, especially with regards to Medical Cannabis?
    Answers:   We probably will never know.   Nor will we ever really know exactly how many women healers (a.k.a. witches) were tortured and executed during the 14th, 15th and 17th centuries.   However, what is known is that a great deal of herbal knowledge was executed with them.   This perhaps may help to explain why so much of our medical knowledge (especially about medical marihuana) was lost during the dark ages.   Maybe this in part also helps to explain why the West fell so far behind so many other civilizations (Hindus, Mohammedans, the Chinese etc.) in medical knowledge. ------------------

    [Note the Catholic church has long ago officially apologized for its actions, however to our knowledge very few protestant denominations have. --- Those who fail to learn from history are doomed to relieve it.]

    Harry Anslinger Harry Anslinger
    [Left]-- Portrate of someone who looks a lot like Harry Anslinger [Right]

    [1]- -- www.religion444.mht
    [2] The exact figure varies from historian to historian. The figure (although a little vague) is the closest we have to accuracy. Note that it represents deaths due to both protestant as well as catholic persecutions
    [3]- "Misquoting Jesus" by Bart D. Ehrman pg. 178
    [4]- William Woodward, legal medical director AMA, the quotation actually comes from a letter (sent to him by a pharmacists on the subject) that he attached to his own reply. April 28, 1930.
    [5]- pg. 144, “The Inquisition” by C-1908, by E.Vacandard [can be found on Google Books]
    [6]- It was a radio program, I forgot the exact words, but it pretty much followed the stated line.
    [7]- “The Black Death” by Johannes Nohl (1926) pg 182 - I have not seen these two Papal Bulls
    [8]- Cows, Pigs, Wars, and Witches pg. 237 by Marvin Harris

    [A]- Woodcarving attributed to “Guazzo's Compendium Maleficarum"
    [B]- Woodcarving attributed to “Historia De Gentibus Septentrionalibus Illustrateds” -- Olanus Magnus
    [C]- Original information found via - Hansen, Quellen, p. 1; Liber Sextus, V.2.8 Corpus luris Canonici, ed. E. Friedberg (Leipzig, 1877), Vol. 11, col. 1071-72. As noted in the book Witchcraft in Europe, a Documentary History by Alan Kors and Edward Peters.


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